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Exploring Potential Quantum Properties of Brain Electromagnetic Circuits within the Limbic System

3D render of limbic system. -Tim Vernon

Exploring Potential Quantum Properties of Brain Electromagnetic Circuits within the Limbic System

by | Jun 21, 2023 | Medical | 4 comments

Steve M. Garman, AS, BS, MA, MD

Abstract

This paper posits a novel theory proposing that electromagnetic fields in the brain, known as brain waves, may exhibit quantum properties and that these fields could potentially guide and accelerate entangled particles along curvilinear tracts. The theory is based on documented evidence of electromagnetic currents and fields within the brain, which can be detected using suitable equipment such as a particle detector.

6108 words, 24 min 25 sec read

Abstract cont…

While the existence of brain electromagnetic waves is well-established the implications of the dipole source and the resulting magnetic field drop-off remain underexplored. A detailed mapping of white-matter tracts has revealed a unique pattern of dense magnetic fields within structures such as the internal capsule, hinting at potential mechanisms for particle acceleration. The Reticular Activating System (RAS) is known to generate a current from the brain stem to the diencephalon, a process integral to consciousness. 

This paper theorizes that this electromagnetic current, traveling through various brain pathways, might accelerate particles, particularly along curved tracts like the Cingulum and Fornix, further enabled by quantum electrodynamics (QED). The paper also explores the possibility of documenting brain particle projection, which if successful, could provide a comparative measure against brain waves, potentially yielding new insights into brain electromagnetic dynamics. The conclusion will offer avenues for experimental validation of this theory.

Keywords – Limbic System; Magnetoencephalography; Quantum Particles; Synchrotron

Introduction

In the framework of Relativity Physics, the speed of light is constant at 186,000 mi/sec or 300 million m/sec, a measurement derived from distance and time parameters. Energy, particularly “rest mass energy” (E=mc2), pertains to a stationary particle’s inherent energy. In the quantum realm, particles exhibit wave-like properties. The velocity of a massless quantum particle, like a photon, corresponds to the group velocity of its wave representation. This implies that the “group velocity” and the particle speed are equal only for photons. 

As we traverse to neuroscience, the principle of wave-particle duality becomes relevant. Introduced by de Broglie and further elaborated upon by Planck and Einstein, this duality holds that quantum objects can exhibit both particle and wave properties. The energy-frequency relationship is represented by the equation E=hf, with h being Planck’s constant and f as frequency. The wavelength (λ) is determined by λ=h/p, with p denoting momentum, but this applies strictly to quantum particles with a defined momentum [4].

Our focus lies in the exploration of particle mechanics and wave mechanics [5}. We will examine the conservation law that governs the spin of particles, extending this concept to entangled particle pairs, which are known to exhibit opposite spin in the case of particle-antiparticle pairs [3]. However, this does not imply simple harmonic motion, a concept from classical mechanics which doesn’t have a direct parallel in quantum mechanics. Instead of trying to establish a relationship between particle acceleration and quantum state projection, which are distinct concepts, we propose to investigate potential links between a particle in uniform circular motion and another particle in a quantum state. This novel approach may yield new insights into the nature of quantum mechanics and particle interaction.

Grounded in the principle that all matter radiates energy (E) as electromagnetic waves traveling at light speed, and that kinetic energy (k=1/2mv^2) is vital for an electron to transcend a black body surface, we aim to explore the potential implications of these laws in neurophysiological systems. While the black body’s emission spectrum hinges on its temperature rather than its constituent material, and its temperature correlates with the wavelength at maximal emission via Wien’s law, we believe these principles might have applications in the acceleration of particles through an aperture in the skull. 

Specifically, we hypothesize that the kinetic energy required for this process might align with the energy of the black body radiation (E=hf), drawing an unforeseen parallel between the microcosm of quantum mechanics and the macrocosm of biological systems. Here, E represents energy, h stands for Planck’s constant (6.624 x 10^(-27) erg/sec), and f signifies frequency.

While the application of quantum mechanical principles to biological systems such as the brain, characterized by their complexity and ‘wet, noisy’ conditions, has been seen as theoretically challenging, it is not impossible [6]. By considering the intrinsic wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics, we can find a place for these principles within the bounds of classical mechanics. 

Bell’s theorem, on the other hand, posits a certain ‘non-locality’ for entangled particles, implying correlations that cannot be explained by local hidden variables. Yet, it does not suggest faster-than-light information transmission. The concept of a ‘speed of entanglement’ needs further exploration and rigorous definition to avoid misunderstandings [7]

In this paper, I attempt to provide clarity of existing principles and laws with a relationship to brain anatomy that is not commonly viewed. For example, perhaps a person contains a body-soul duality that is an extension of the wave-particle duality of subatomic particles. What happens here – continues there. When here ceases – there continues (brain waves: light waves). 

  • “The brain is the tangible “floppy disc” on which we save our data, and this is then “uploaded” into the spiritual quantum field.” Dr. Hans-Peter Durr, Max Plank Institute for Physics, Munich, Germany
  • “The result of modern natural sciences only make sense if we assume an inner, uniform, transcendent reality that is based on all external data and facts. The very depth of human consciousness is one of them.” David Bohm
  • “A quantum machine (brain) is a kind of analog calculator that computes by encoding information in the ephemeral (brief) waves that comprise light and matter at the nanoscale. Quantum entanglement- holds it all together, detecting and fixing errors.” David Reilly-Microsoft; Sidney, Australia

A brief review of brain anatomy and its potential association with electromagnetic and quantum principles is necessary before this hypothesis can be further developed. 

 

 

Brain Anatomy

The human brain generates an electromagnetic field that can be measured [2][8]. While the magnetic field is faint, it can be detected at close proximity. However, as the distance increases, the strength of this field decreases rapidly, typically adhering to the inverse-square law. 

Exploring the head and its components from an electromagnetic perspective can provide us with enlightening insights. The generation and transfer of electrical charges within and between certain materials can have significant effects, some of which can be observed in physiological phenomena. For instance, the electrical activity of the brain and heart can be measured by electroencephalograms (EEGs) and electrocardiograms (EKGs), respectively. These technologies capture the transfer of charges through materials.

Additional observations can be made within the brain by mapping the magnetic fields produced by neural activity. This is made possible using a device called a magnetoencephalogram (MEG) scanner. The MEG scanner offers more precise localizations of brain activity, enhancing our understanding of the brain’s electromagnetic properties.

In the exploration of these intricate neurobiological processes, one might consider drawing parallels to fundamental principles in physics. Consider the following for future reference within this paper: 

The Cranium. Functioning akin to a complex bioelectrical system, with a distinct charge distribution in the surrounding tissues and fluids, while maintaining an overall state of net electrical neutrality within the skull’s structural composition [9].

The Internal Capsule. A dense white matter bundle, may potentially interact with electromagnetic fields, a hypothesis we explore with reference to the high-volume flow of moving charges within its structure. While it is established that magnetic fields arise from negative and positive charges moving in opposite directions, we aim to examine whether this generalized concept could be applied specifically to the functions of the Internal Capsicle and limbic system. Drawing parallels to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction expressed as EMF=-N*d(ΦB)/dt, where N is the number of turns of the coil, ΦB is the magnetic flux, and dt is the change in time results as a change in magnetic flux through a coil inducing an electric field – I posit that the conduction of neural signals, as moving charges, might interact with these potential electromagnetic fields. This interaction and its implications on neurophysiology are the primary focus of our research.

The Corona Radiata. Originating from the Internal Capsule, might interact with the Cingulum and Fornix in a complex, yet-to-be-understood way. Drawing parallels with physical phenomena, one could postulate a speculative model where these brain structures exhibit functions reminiscent of a magnetic field or a particle accelerator, under specific conditions. However, to assert this with certainty, further empirical data would be needed to bridge the gap between the physics of particle acceleration, represented by the formula a=v squared/r, and the potential roles of these neuroanatomical structures.

The Corpus Callosum. This broad, thick plate of dense myelinated fibers connects the cortex with regions of the opposite hemisphere. If it could generate its own discrete, directionally oriented magnetic fields, with the field of the Corpus Callosum being horizontally oriented and superior to that of the Fornix, while simultaneously being horizontal and inferior to the Cingulum [10], one might surmise that these magnetic fields could conceivably impact the trajectories of charged particles within the brain. Moreover, assuming a correlation exists between these neurobiological processes and the phenomenon of magnetobremsstrahlung observed in high-energy physics, such as within a synchrotron particle accelerator, it could be postulated that these fields might bend or deflect the path of these charged particles in a comparable manner. 

The Thalamus. An essential facilitator of the bioelectric signaling within the limbic system and the internal capsule, a process that may result in meaningful patterns of bioelectrical activity. Drawing an analogy from the world of physics, and using Maxwell’s equations as an abstract representation, the thalamus could be conceptualized as a key node in this information network, with other brain structures providing modulatory influences similar to resistance in an electrical circuit. The amygdalae might serve roles comparable to capacitors, temporarily storing and releasing signals. This network, through its collective bioelectrical activity, might shape a complex interaction field around itself, creating a subtle form of ‘neural magnetosphere’.

The Amygdala. Widely recognized for its fundamental role in emotional processing and associative learning, such as emotional memories, could potentially have a multifaceted function akin to an integrative node in a complex network, receiving and processing diverse signals, possibly including bioelectrical signals, from other brain structures such as the thalamus. As stated above, the amygdala might serve roles comparable to capacitors, temporarily storing and releasing signals. This notion, while speculative, may prompt new directions in investigating the amygdala’s complex roles within the brain’s neural circuitry.

The Skull. A necessary mention. While not intrinsically a part of the brain, the three distinct layers of the skull – the inner and outer tables with largely isotropic properties and the middle layer or diploe with anisotropic properties – are crucial to consider when examining the brain as an electro-magnetic structure. The overall conductivity of the skull, significantly lower than other body tissues, casts an undeniable influence on external electric measurements. Nevertheless, the use of a SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometer, a tool proficient at gauging magnetic fields in living organisms and founded on dipole localization principles, demonstrates relative insensitivity to such changes in skull conductivity, albeit it is not entirely immune to them.

The Fornix. A major white matter tract of the hippocampus formation plays a crucial role in memory recall. Positioned adjacent to the choroid plexus— the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)—it is reasonable to postulate an interaction between the flow of CSF and the cranial electromagnetic properties. However, an exploration of this concept is beyond the purview of this study. The fornix conveys neuronal signals bidirectionally between the cortex and the hypothalamus, the center for emotional processing, forming a critical nexus in the hippocampal formation. The fornix’s positioning beneath the corpus callosum, which we hypothesize might resemble a horizontal magnet in its influence, will become relevant as we delve into the idea of particle projection along the fornix’s curved trajectory. As the fornix arches and projects forward, it bifurcates at the anterior commissure into the precommissural and postcommissural fibers, linking to the septal nuclei and mammillary bodies, respectively [11].

The Septal Nuclei. Situated near the midline of the brain, beneath the rostrum of the corpus callosum, lie the Septal Nuclei. This complex hub of neuronal connections sees the termination of pre-commissural fibers of the fornix, while post-commissural fibers journey to the mammillary bodies, eventually returning to the thalamus. It is in this area that I hypothesize the initiation of specific neuronal signal transmission beyond conventional white matter tracts, a phenomenon potentially related to the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Concurrently, pre-commissural fibers originating from the hippocampus interact with the hypothalamus, with medial connections fostering a bi-directional flow within the fornix. This intricate neural dance is marked by overlapping projections from the hippocampus and amygdala [12].

The Orbital Fissures. The superior and inferior orbital fissures, situated in the skull just anterior to the curved cingulum and fornix tracts, are proposed to be apertures where certain bioelectric particles might exit the cranial vault. Given the angle of projection, the twofold nature of these tracts, and their anatomical structure, these fissures serve as plausible points of egress. Moreover, the vitreous humor of the eye, composed of 99% water, offers less resistance than neural tissue, a factor that could facilitate this particle transport. Notably, we acknowledge that temperature influences electrical resistance; hence, the measured resistance of the eyeball is 2494 ohms [13]. We postulate that an electrically charged particle within the body would not exist unshielded in the dipole water medium. Upon encountering a barrier, a charged particle may not cease immediately; instead, its amplitude might decrease gradually. This situation evokes parallels with the concept of quantum tunneling, wherein the emerging current-density is determined by the ratio with the cooler barrier’s current-density [14]. This prompts further exploration into the feasibility of the eye’s orbit serving as a potential exit for projected particles.

The Neuron. Grounded in our extensive knowledge of the neuron, we propose that the 70mv. action potential within these cells can reach propagation speeds of up to 268 mph in myelinated neurons, a velocity facilitated by saltatory conduction. We further posit that the ion channel proteins within these neurons give rise to conductive, capacitive, and bioelectromagnetic properties, contributing to a collective, time-varying electromagnetic field. This field, while indiscernible at the level of a single neuron, can be measured when emanating from larger ensembles of neurons, as evidenced by magnetoencephalography (MEG) [15]. Our hypothesis predicts that advances in MEG technology could allow for detection at the individual neuron level, leading to new insights in neurophysiology.

 

Working Principle

The exploration of brain anatomy from an electromagnetic perspective may seem challenging, but it can open new avenues for understanding the intricate workings of memory and thought. It’s important to stress that while the hippocampus and certain other regions are well-recognized for their role in memory storage, the idea of memory being represented in a distributed manner throughout the brain is also supported by scientific evidence, as seen in Braitenberg and Kirschfield’s 1967 work. This understanding played a significant role in the development of the Holonomic Brain Theory, thus highlighting the necessity for further research in this field.

As we delve into the realm of particle acceleration and projection, an intriguing parallel can be drawn with the brain’s intricate functions, specifically those of the hippocampus and the Reticular Activating System (RAS). The RAS, responsible for the brain’s electromagnetic currents, originates in the brain stem, projecting to the cerebral cortex and influencing diverse human functions ranging from walking to speech. This current, upon reaching the hippocampus, experiences a distinctive regulatory process, possibly akin to how particles might be accelerated or projected. 

The hippocampus, with its three neuronal layers, differs from other areas with six layers, which could influence this unique regulation. Incoming afferent fibers from the entorhinal area introduce Grid Cells to this system. Together with place and time cells, they may orchestrate the complex process of memory formation and information processing along trajectories of physical and conceptual space. The grid coding mechanism employed here could be likened to mapping principles used in particle physics. These grid cells, while most abundant in the entorhinal cortex, are distributed throughout the neo-cortex. Additionally, the cingulate gyrus sends afferent fibers to the hippocampus, further enriching this sophisticated network.

 

Projection Pathways

The widely accepted interpretation of the Papez Circuit might be enhanced by focusing on the pre-commissural subdivision of the fornix’s role. The conventional understanding suggests the circuit flow commences at the subiculum of the hippocampus, traveling to the medial mammillary nucleus via the fornix, then proceeding to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus via the post-commissural of the fornix, and eventually reaching the cerebral cortex. From there, it is understood to return to the cingulum, the entorhinal area, and, ultimately, the subiculum. 

However, evidence from DTI and fMRI studies indicates a connection between the hippocampus and the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC) via the pre-commissural subdivision of the fornix [10]. This connection may have significant implications for the function of the Papez Circuit, which I have explored through a concept I have termed “particle projection [1].

Given this, the circuit flow can be conceptualized as: 

Anterior Thalamic Nuclei – Cingulum – Hippocampus – Fornix (via pre-commissural Fibers) – Septal Nuclei – Particle Projection. 

 This alternative interpretation could open new avenues for understanding the intricate workings of the Papez Circuit. 

The Limbic System. Situated within the brain’s subcortical structures and surrounded by the cortex, this system plays a major role in managing an individual’s emotional behavior and drive. Situated on both sides of the thalamus, it houses many key structures that are instrumental in regulating cognitive and emotional processes. It includes the paleomammalian cortex, a region significant in driving motivation, emotion, learning, and memory, thereby aiding in the associative processes that direct attention.

The foundation of this proposal begins with the concept that brain memory-thought might have the potential to be projected outside the organism, an intriguing notion demanding empirical scrutiny. The limbic system, being central to memory and emotions, could theoretically play a role, yet the mechanisms of such a process remain unclear. Quantum entanglement, as highlighted by Bell’s theorem, presents fascinating possibilities, with entangled particles demonstrating a deep, instantaneous connection independent of distance. Upon measurement, quantum particles indeed reveal macroscopic changes, echoing the wave-particle duality that matter and energy share [17]. One might observe a photon striking a detector screen as a manifestation of this duality.

 

Biologic Examples of Electromagnetism

Life is not merely a construct of molecules, amino acids, and proteins. In addition to these, I propose that there exists an intrinsic electromagnetic functionality operating at a quantum level, contributing to life’s interaction with the surrounding environment [18]. This paper aims to provide evidence, albeit preliminary, for particle generation, movement, acceleration, and projection originating from the human brain. As this may appear challenging to skeptics, I will offer some supporting evidence, drawing on biological and physical mechanics that substantiate my ideas. To some, this may appear as a reiteration of known concepts, but I posit it’s a critical step when a novel perspective is proposed. While I may reference place cells, grid cells, memory, and the Holonomic Brain Theory, a detailed exploration of these existing knowledge spheres is outside the paper’s scope.

Reticular Activating System. The Reticular Activating System (RAS) appears to be strongly associated with the electrical force that stimulates the cerebral cortex, promoting a state of wakefulness. This current is thought to traverse the Papez circuit and Limbic systems, journeying upward from the brain stem, from the thalamus to the cerebrum. The existence of bioelectromagnetism within the brain stem is acknowledged. The Ampere-Faraday law is a valuable tool in understanding this phenomenon, proposing that a change in electric flux can induce an electromagnetic force (EMF).

It is recognized that magnetite (Fe3o4), a ferromagnetic naturally occurring mineral, is present within the brain. With a proposed concentration of about 100 million crystals per gram in the dura and around 5 million crystals per gram of neurons, this mineral could theoretically contribute to the magnetic properties of brain regions. However, it is critical to note that correlation does not imply causation. As such, this hypothesis suggests that a higher concentration of magnetite may be linked to greater magnetism in certain brain regions, specifically the brain stem, and cerebellum, but empirical evidence is necessary to substantiate this claim. Areas of interest for further exploration include the midbrain, particularly below the pons, due to its high white matter content and its role as the RAS origin point, alongside the pre-frontal area, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. The potential influence of magnetite’s magnetic properties on the electromagnetic flux within the brain presents a compelling avenue for future research, given its status as the most magnetic mineral naturally found on Earth.

Cryptochrome. Cryptochrome proteins, which have been identified not only in certain avian retinas but also in humans, exhibit sensitivity to the Earth’s magnetic fields, aiding bird navigation. Humans possess two types of cryptochromes: CRY1 and CRY2. Interestingly, CRY2 is abundantly present in the human retina, leading to speculation that this protein might provide a pathway for magnetic information to be communicated to the brain. However, the function of cryptochromes can vary widely among different species. In some bird species, cryptochrome’s conversion into a ‘radical pair’ – a rare occurrence involving the transfer of an electron to a partner molecule known as FAD upon exposure to blue light – associates magnetoreception with vision. While such a mechanism has been observed in birds, it remains a hypothesis in humans and further investigation is required to ascertain its validity.

Quantum entanglement observed in radical pairs, where two individual electrons have spin states that are either synchronized or opposing, can be influenced by the earth’s magnetic fields [19]. While this intriguing phenomenon has been substantiated, its biological implications remain less explored. Several species, ranging from birds, bats, turtles, ants, mole rats, sharks, and rays, have demonstrated the presence of magnetic senses. Furthermore, the fish Gnathonemus petersii displays a unique ability for active electrolocation, generating brief electrical pulses to form a three-dimensional electric field that its electroreceptors can perceive [20]. A potential area of exploration could be examining whether the influence of earth’s magnetic fields on radical pair spins may, in fact, play a fundamental role in these animals’ sensory mechanisms.”

Please note that the validity of these interpretations depends heavily on the accuracy and context of the references [19] and [20].

 

Brain Waves

Sophisticated magnetometers, like the SQUID helmet of the MEG device, have shown promising results in measuring electromagnetic fields. Frequencies of brain waves fall in the range of 0.1-100 Hz, quite low compared to other electromagnetic phenomena [2]. While high-frequency EMFs are known for their long-distance information transmission capabilities and low-frequency EMFs for their penetrative properties, the exact applicability of these principles to brain waves requires further investigation. Quantum electrodynamics (QED) illustrates that brain waves have significantly fewer cycles per second (10-100) compared to radio waves (50 million to 1 billion cycles per second, or megahertz) [23]. 

Frequency, as expressed in the formula f = c/lambda (frequency equals the speed of light divided by wavelength), illustrates the inverse relationship between wavelength and frequency and energy: shorter wavelength corresponds to higher frequency and energy. 

The commonly detected brain wave frequencies are as follows: 

  • Gamma waves (31-100 Hz)
  • Beta waves (16-30 Hz) 
  • Alpha waves (8-15 Hz) 
  • Delta waves (0.1-3 Hz)
  • Theta waves (3.5-8 Hz)

Theta waves, prominent in brain functions like deep meditation, spiritual experiences, dreams, sleep, super learning, and daydreaming, are notably concentrated in the entorhinal and hippocampal regions of the brain, a finding substantiated by Dr. May-Britt Moser et al.’s study on the significance of memory and learning. 

The hypothesis presented here is an exploration of the potential that the limbic system’s electromagnetic currents not only facilitate the transmission of information from the hippocampus but might also undergo acceleration. I further postulate that such acceleration could even enable impulses from sensory organs, such as the eye and ear within the entorhinal cortex, to be projected away from their originating mass via the fornix, a primary efferent tract of the hippocampus.

 

Brain-Particle Acceleration

Objects in constant-speed circular motion demonstrate acceleration due to continuous directional changes. This principle may find intriguing parallels in the neural architecture of the brain. The cingulum and the fornix, curved structures in the brain, are laden with bioelectric currents. Encased on three sides by dense white matter tracts—potential analogs to magnetic fields—these structures hold an intriguing position. The architecture and dimensions of these structures might be critical, considering the fact that in particle accelerators, a balance is struck between energy and curvature radius [21]. 

This could give a new interpretation to the concept: “Form Follows Function.

My aim is to investigate the possible existence of particle acceleration within the brain, specifically involving the fornix within the limbic system. I posit that when particle spins align, there could be an increase in energy and force. Axial current, being a longitudinal and capacitive current, alongside ionic currents, could potentially initiate an action potential. I previously demonstrated the presence of magnetic forces within the brain, arguing that changes in our body’s magnetic field cannot be decoupled from an electric field. In context, a charged particle (q) subjected to a magnetic field demonstrates a force (F) that aligns with the field strength (B) when the particle’s velocity (v) is perpendicular to the field. 

This is encapsulated in the equation F=qvB.

Within the brain, the main magnetic field (Bo) manifests alongside the spin of various protons (e.g., blood, CSF, H2O) [22]. Concurrently, a local static field disturbance (Bloc), akin to the ferromagnetic influence observed in flowing red blood cells, is present. When (Bloc) aligns with (Bo), the combined fields manifest a resonance that potentially diminishes net magnetization (Mxy) through phase difference among unaffected spins. This phenomenon is referred to as T2 relaxation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). [25] Electric and magnetic forces are proportional to the strength of the electromagnetic field. As such, increased field strength may contribute to greater velocity and charge, and, consequently, a greater force.  

The force on a charged particle in a magnetic field is defined by Fmag = qvB sin(theta), where theta is the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field, emphasizing the importance of the incident angle in determining force.

Considering axonal electric currents in the brain as a form of electromagnetic radiation allows us to quantify it. Given the curved structure within the limbic system, one might encounter what resembles synchrotron radiation. Despite the non-relativistic nature of subatomic particles, the power of such radiation can be expressed using the relativistic Larmor formula, which describes the force of the emitting electron via the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force. If the electron moves at sufficiently high speeds, the energy emitted could resemble that at X-ray wavelengths. In this context, synchrotron radiation becomes the most luminous artificial source of X-rays. A cyclic particle accelerator—housing charged subatomic particles like electrons that achieve significant energy levels in an alternating electric field, while being confined to a circular orbit by a magnetic field—offers an interesting metaphor for the operation of the fornix and, to some extent, the cingulum within the brain’s limbic system.

 

General Discussion

It has been observed in the field of physics that radiation can be shaped from an isotropic dipole into a highly directed cone of radiation. We hypothesize that a similar interplay between electric and magnetic fields occurs within the limbic system, specifically in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. This interaction may generate patterns reminiscent of the quantum phenomena observed in entangled particles, where the state of one particle is intrinsically connected to the state of the other, regardless of their spatial separation. This hypothesis remains speculative, pending rigorous experimental validation.

As memories become encoded within the diverse, functionally specialized cell types of the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit, including place, grid, and border cells, we propose that these memories may become interconnected, forming an intricate network [24]. This theorized connectivity could be analogous to quantum entanglement, thereby producing a complex web of ‘entangled memories.’ These entangled memories might then project as electromagnetic information, influenced by the intense acceleration of electrons within the limbic system. While the exact mathematical framework underlying this concept, such as the use of Fourier transformations, is beyond the scope of this paper, it hints at the potential involvement of cyclical patterns akin to waves and oscillations observed in signal processing and circuit pathways, including the Papez circuit.

Existing evidence supporting the Holonomic Brain Theory, such as the non-locality of memory storage evident in cases of anterograde amnesia following bilateral hippocampus or fornix removal, allows us to conceptualize memory storage as a hologram, where each part holds the entire information. It is plausible that biological electric signals converted into weak electromagnetic waves play a pivotal role in storing such ‘holographic’ memories [26]. As in experiments where a laser beam passed through a certain crystal creates pairs of entangled photons capable of being separated by large distances (100s of miles), as noted by John Clauser, we speculate similar phenomena may occur within the brain.

When considering the forces involved in the projection of particles, the limitations set by the permeability of various materials must not be overlooked. We venture to propose that certain anatomical features, such as the entorhinal area and the orbital fissures of the skull, could potentially serve as conduits for this projection. Drawing a theoretical comparison with the double-slit experiment from quantum physics, these structures might hypothetically demonstrate a form of wave-particle duality [27]. However, this remains purely speculative, and it is critical to emphasize the need for experimental studies to validate these hypotheses. The mechanisms through which such particle and wave projections could occur through these ‘windows’ remain to be elucidated.

Brain waves typically cycle at a rate of 10-100 cycles/sec when the brain is engaged in focused tasks or memory retrieval. Hypothetically, we can interpret this in the context of quantum tunneling, allowing accelerated particles to penetrate barriers such as the skull. We propose that high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) might project through the skull’s orbital fissures, whereas lower frequencies might project through the rest of the skull. However, these assumptions necessitate further exploration and empirical testing.

 

Conclusion

The Reticular Activating System (RAS) generates a neuroelectrical activity that travels from the brain stem to the diencephalon, playing a role in the complex process of consciousness. This activity propagates along several pathways, moving upward and forward. The electrical signals might potentially accelerate, partially due to the unique anatomical structure of the limbic system’s tracts. It is postulated that they may undergo a process akin to quantum tunneling, suggestive of phenomena observed in quantum electrodynamics (QED).

 

All nerve tracts possess companion tracts, operating in opposite directions and interacting with adjacent structures, including blood vessels. Experimentally, these could be considered electromagnetic tracts and possess some sub-Curie temperature ferromagnetic properties. More research is needed on the strength of these properties. 

 Next, the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) circulates in close association with these structures, although its precise roles in this context are not entirely clear to me. It may contribute to maintaining the appropriate environment for these processes. The biological patterns associated with memory, formed within the hippocampus, are transmitted outward, with their propagation potentially subject to various types of interference. 

Lastly, I would like to propose a few thoughts regarding research and experimentation to confirm the above theorem:

  1. A potential exploratory approach to testing the above hypotheses could involve reconfiguring a magnetoencephalography (MEG) scanner to focus on detecting electromagnetic activity at the orbits or nasal openings of the skull [28]. While intriguing, it’s important to consider the potential challenges, including the sensitivity of the MEG scanner and the possible interference from external magnetic fields or electromagnetic noise. Nevertheless, with proper controls and careful experimental design, this could serve as a novel preliminary step.
  2. Consider the utilization of quantum dots. Labeling of these semiconductor nanocrystals with non-toxic materials such as a peptide has already been accomplished.[29] Neurotransmitter chemicals and even pharmaceuticals could be considered. Consider how levodopa crosses the blood-brain barrier converting to dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The polymer-coated quantum dot (QD) then binds with electrons traveling in the white matter tracts that have been well delineated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Presently, it appears that QD can participate in axonal transport, but an inability to cross the synapses of neurons could present a problem. [30]
  3. Another possible study method could be utilizing bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) [31]. The neurotransmitter donor enzyme acetylcholinesterase could catalyze a chemical reaction releasing measurable energy. We already know that the basal forebrain is the major cholinergic output of the CNS. This is significant since it is not only important in the production of acetylcholine, but it also contains a higher concentration of magnetite crystals than most areas.
  4. Lastly, a potential method for exploration might involve the use of ultrasound to transiently open the blood-brain barrier, allowing for the magnetically guided injection of labeled cells or particles into the CNS. Labeling could be achieved using a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle solution (SPION), which can subsequently be visualized using conventional MRI techniques. This method, while promising, does present challenges and considerations, including the safety of ultrasound-induced opening of the blood-brain barrier, the efficacy and precision of magnetic guidance, and the suitability and detectability of SPION labeling in the chosen cells or particles.

References:

 

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[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/orders-of-magnitude-(magnetic-field) (accessed 19 April 2020

[3] Ouellette, Jennifer., (2016) A New Spin on the Quantum Brain, Neuroscience, Quanta Magazine, https://www.quantamagazine.org/a-new-spin-on-the-quantum-brain-20161102/ (accessed 10 March 2020)

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/planck-constant (accessed 23 December 2019)

[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/matter-wave (accessed 16 December 2019)

[6] Tarlac, Sultan., Pregnolato, Massimo (2016) Quantum neurophysics: From non-living matter to quantum neurobiology and psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology pp. 161-173 

[7] Bell, John. (1964) On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox, Physics 1 3, pp. 195-200

[8] Malloy, Paul., Correia, Stephen., Stebbins, Glenn., and Laidlaw, David H., Neuroimaging of white matter in aging and dementia. (2005) The Clinical Neuropsychologist

[9] Sadleir, R.J., and Argibay, A., (2007) Modeling skull electrical properties. Ann. Biomed Eng. Oct; 35(10): pp. 1699-1712 

[10] https://www.vh.org.adult/provider/anatomy/BrainAnatomy/ch5text/section15.html

[11] Williams, Angharad N., Ridgeway, Samuel., Postans, Mark., Graham. Kim S., Lawrence, Andrew D., Hodgetts, Carl J., (2020) The role of the pre-commissural fornix in episodic autobiographical memory and simulation. J.Neuropsychologia 107457

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